Use the following summary
lecture notes to augment your learning experience. The lecture notes by
themselves are not sufficient to complete the learning objectives or score well
on the examinations. You should spend time on the web, reading the recommended
textbook, etc. in order to enhance your knowledge.
Terms (click to go to):
cardiovascular (aerobic) endurance
initial phase of conditioning
improvement phase of conditioning
maintenance phase of conditioning
2: Exercising for Health-Related Fitness
beings were not made to be inactive.
Exercise makes us feel better, look better and, most importantly, improves our
health. Consistent exercise reduces
the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. It is valuable
in the long-term control of body weight and in maintaining physical capability
during aging. Additionally, many
individuals experience an increase in mental functioning, greater daily energy
levels, improved emotional state and ability to handle stress, and a more
positive outlook about life.
is important to note that while exercise is important in the prevention of
diseases and improving quality of life, exercise alone does not guarantee
good health. Factors such as
age, gender, genetics, diet, environment, safety practices and other
lifestyle habits all interact to determine disability, illness and quality
of life. However, exercising is one of the wellness habits with the greatest
potential to improve health and well being that is under individual control.
fitness may be broken down into two broad categories: performance-related
fitness, and health-related fitness. The
goal of performance-related fitness
is to condition the athlete to a very high level for competition. The
goals of health-related fitness
are disease prevention and to improve quality of life.
Although performance-related fitness is a worthy goal, the focus of
this wellness course is health-related fitness.
it is difficult to determine how much (the dose) exercise a given individual
requires in order to experience health benefits (the "threshold"
for health benefits). The results of large, long-term
epidemiological research studies seem to indicate that most people would
experience significant health benefits from moderate physical activity,
continued for 30-60 minutes, on most days of the week. Although the
individual response might vary, this seems to be the best general advice for
adults engaging in health-related fitness activities.
components of health-related fitness include: cardiovascular (aerobic)
endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility (range of motion),
and body weight control.
is an important component of overall fitness and is a measure of the hearts
ability to pump oxygen rich blood to the working muscles.
is the maximal ability to generate force.
Muscular endurance is the
ability to repeatedly apply force. These
capabilities are as important for good health as they are for competition.
is the ability to move joints freely throughout their full range of motion.
is important for adults to maintain a healthy level of body fat (as
reflected in body weight) throughout the life span.
Exercise has been shown to be effective in the long-term control of
stated previously, the physical dimension of wellness interacts with the
other 4 dimensions. Each dimension is important to the overall health and
wellness of the individual.
this lesson pertains to "planned" exercise, an individual may
develop fitness through activities that are incorporated into their daily
schedule, such as walking instead of taking the bus, taking the stairs
instead of the elevator, yard work, etc. If a person is more successful at
achieving fitness in this fashion, and
can be consistent, this may be a better approach to planned exercise.
It is simply an individual matter.
overload principle of exercise
training involves increasing the frequency, duration, or intensity of
exercise beyond that which the body is accustomed. If done appropriately, overload will lead to conditioning
without undue exhaustion or injury.
of exercise training describes a deconditioning process where the body
loses its functional ability due to disuse (being sedentary).
of exercise training means that only the muscles actually involved in
the exercise session benefit by experiencing a conditioning effect.
Also, to benefit aerobically from an exercise session, a person must
recuperation principle of
exercise training states that the body requires a recovery period between
exercise sessions in order to adapt to the stress of exercise.
is a condition of fatigue resulting from too stressful an exercise session
and/or inadequate recuperation periods.
of exercise training states that the body should be gradually overloaded
in phases (stages) according to the level of conditioning and individual
goals of the initial phase of
conditioning are the
establishment of an exercise habit, injury and soreness prevention, and
skill learning. This "break-in" phase usually lasts 1-3 weeks and
involves light exercising. If this phase is conducted appropriately, the
individual should feel the exercise session is too easy--and want
to overload a bit.
goals of the improvement
phase of conditioning are to gradually and systematically overload
in order to condition to an appropriate level for wellness purposes.
For health-related fitness, it is best to increase the duration of
activity before increasing the intensity of the activity.
It is important to note that an appropriate amount of exercise will
eventually be reached beyond which additional overload might be considered
excessive and detract from the other dimensions of wellness.
This phase normally lasts approximately 6 months if a person
maintenance phase of
when a person has reached an appropriate amount of exercise and wishes to
make fitness a lifelong habit. The goals in this phase of conditioning are
to prevent boredom by including a variety of activities, continued positive
reinforcement, and support during those periods when exercise adherence
(sticking to an exercise habit) is difficult. In the absence of the
leadership of an exercise professional, an individual should seek out
opportunities for reinforcement through support groups and/or reading
positive materials, etc. Remaining thankful for being physically fit is
always a good reinforcer.
few additional tips for increasing exercise
adherence are: set realistic goals which require a reasonable
exercise program, make engaging in the exercise session easy (equipment,
expense, travel, personnel), make exercising one of your most important
priorities, have a plan for exercising or incorporating physical activities
into your normal daily lifestyle, limit exercise sessions to 1-hour each day
if you have family and/or work responsibilities, and adjust your exercise
program instead of quitting completely.
exercise session should include a warm-up, conditioning period, and cool
down. The warm-up should be a 5-10 minute
period of light exercise prior to the conditioning period. The conditioning
period is a longer period (20-60 minutes for aerobic exercise) in
which the intensity and duration are sufficient for health benefit and/or a
conditioning response. The cool-down is a
5-10 minute period (or longer if needed) of light activity during which the
body gradually adjusts back to a resting state.
parts of an "exercise prescription"
or plan for each component of fitness should include the: method (what to
do), frequency (how often), duration (how long), intensity (how hard), and
progression (stages). The following lessons discuss these parts for each
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