Use the following summary
lecture notes to augment your learning experience. The lecture notes by
themselves are not sufficient to complete the learning objectives or score well
on the examinations. You should spend time on the web, reading the recommended
textbook, etc. in order to enhance your knowledge.
acute exercise response
chronic exercise response
mode (of exercise)
frequency (of exercise)
duration (of exercise)
intensity (of exercise)
progression (of exercise)
target heart rate training zone
rating of perceived exertion
that rely on the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the working muscles for
energy production are called cardiorespiratory or "aerobic"
activities. Aerobic exercises involve
large muscle groups, in a rhythmical fashion, at low-to-moderate intensities,
for extended periods of time. For example, walking, jogging, swimming, cycling
and aerobic dance are all considered aerobic exercises when conducted at
most accurate method of determining level of aerobic conditioning is by
measuring the maximal amount of oxygen the body can take in, transport, and use
to form energy. The direct measurement of these capabilities can only be done in
a laboratory and is called the VO2max, or
maximal oxygen consumption.
aerobic exercise results in an improvement in aerobic fitness (VO2max)
along with associated health benefits. Consistent
exercise reduces the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, and
osteoporosis. It is valuable in the long-term control of body weight and in
maintaining physical capability during aging.
Additionally, many individuals experience an increase in mental
functioning, greater daily energy levels, improved emotional state and ability
to handle stress, and a more positive outlook about life.
cardiorespiratory system refers to
the heart/circulatory system, which transports oxygen and nutrients in the blood
to the working muscles, and the respiratory system, which loads oxygen into and
removes carbon dioxide from the blood.
responses are those that occur during
exercise, and include increases in heart rate, stroke
volume (amount of blood pumped per beat) and blood
pressure, all of which result in greater blood flow to the working
muscles. Ventilation (breathing) also increases
in order to meet the oxygen loading and carbon dioxide unloading requirements
responses (longer-term adaptations) include an increase in VO2max
resulting from a greater stroke volume and specific muscle cell changes. Due to
the increase in stroke volume with training, heart rate decreases at rest and
during submaximal exercise. This indicates an improvement in aerobic
healthy people can begin a low or
moderate exercise program without the need for a medical evaluation.
Those having risk factors for heart disease, joint problems, or who have
been sedentary and are beyond age 40 (50 for women) should consult with their
physician before beginning an exercise program, especially if it is vigorous.
Certainly, anyone with symptoms and/or known cardiovascular disease or diabetes
should have a medical check-up prior to beginning an exercise program.
stated in lesson 2, an exercise prescription
should include guidance concerning the mode or method (what to do), frequency
(how often), duration (how long), intensity (how hard), and progression (stages)
of the exercise program. The following guidelines relate to achieving
cardiovascular (aerobic) fitness, the mode should
include exercises that utilize large muscle groups, are rhythmic, safe, and can
be easily continued for long periods of time at moderate intensity. Good aerobic
activities include, but are not limited to: brisk walking, jogging,
rollerblading, stationary and road cycling, aerobic dance, and swimming. The
activity should be one the participant enjoys, has the equipment, knowledge and
skill to perform, and can be conveniently practiced.
frequency of aerobic activity depends somewhat on
lifestyle and whether body weight control is a goal.
A frequency range of 3-7 days per week is the standard recommendation.
Although increases in aerobic fitness may result from exercising as
little as 3 days per week, those wishing to lose body weight or who enjoy
exercising more often, may exercise 5-7 days per week.
exercising often, adults should not
engage in high-impact activities (those such as jogging, where the body becomes
temporarily airborne) on successive days or else repetitive strain injuries
might occur. Cross-training, or mixing of
activities, is an effective way to train on successive days, fight boredom, and
reduce the chances of developing overuse injuries.
exercises should be continued for longer periods of time at low-moderate
intensity. The duration should
be 20-60 minutes of continuous activity for most adults. For example, most
adults can complete a 3-mile brisk walk in 45-60 minutes.
Those with specific health problems or low exercise tolerance can benefit
from breaking the 30-60 minutes up into several shorter exercise sessions.
Additionally, a good rule for busy adults is to avoid exercise sessions which
last beyond one hour.
intensity of aerobic activity is important for
safety and effectiveness reasons. The standard recommended range is 50-85% of VO2max,
or 12-16 on the RPE (Rating of Perceived Exertion—discussed below). Those with
very poor fitness levels and/or other health problems may, however, benefit from
exercise intensities as low as 40% VO2max, and 10 on the RPE. It is
wise to keep intensity low during the initial stage of the aerobic exercise
program and then proceed to gradually increase to moderate intensity during the
improvement stage. Click the link below to see instructions on how to calculate
an appropriate target heart
rate training zone (THR) and an explanation of the rating
of perceived exertion scale (RPE).
to calculation of target heart rate training zone and RPE not yet available)
aerobic exercise program should progress from an initial, “break-in” stage
of approximately 3-weeks, to an improvement stage lasting about 6-months, to
lifetime maintenance of the fitness habit. As stated in lesson 2, the goal of progression
is to gradually overload the aerobic system by increasing the frequency,
duration and intensity of the activity until arriving at a reasonable,
appropriate amount of exercise that can be maintained for life. It is important,
when overloading for aerobic conditioning and weight control, to increase the
duration of the exercise session before increasing the intensity.
to week-by-week CV training program not yet